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Pressure types, difference b/w sensor and transmitter

The pressure sensor is the most commonly used sensor in industrial practice to convert pressure into electrical signal output. It is used in various industrial automation environments, medical, engineering machinery, instrumentation, atmospheric environment, etc. It is also the most widely used sensor. .

   The main function is to measure the pressure, that is, convert the measured pressure value into a current or voltage signal, and output it to the secondary meter, and then the secondary meter converts to the corresponding pressure value. A meter that converts a pressure variable into a standardized output signal that can be transmitted, and has a given continuous function relationship (usually a linear function) between the output signal and the pressure variable.

   When selecting a pressure sensor, the range, accuracy, temperature characteristics of the pressure sensor, and chemical characteristics are all considered, and the operation of the pressure sensor is also an important issue to consider.


There are five common types of pressure sensors. The following is an introduction to the working principle of five common pressure sensors:

   1. Piezoelectric pressure sensor: The piezoelectric effect is the main working principle of the piezoelectric sensor. The piezoelectric sensor cannot be used for static measurement, because the electric charge after external force is saved only when the loop has an infinite input impedance. . This is not the case, so this determines that the piezoelectric sensor can only measure dynamic stresses.

   2. sapphire pressure sensor: the use of strain resistance type of working principle, using silicon-sapphire as a semiconductor sensor, with unparalleled metrology. Therefore, semiconductor sensitive components made of silicon-sapphire are insensitive to temperature changes, and have excellent operating characteristics even under high temperature conditions; sapphire has extremely strong radiation resistance; in addition, silicon-sapphire semiconductor sensitive components have no P-N drift.

   3. Piezoresistive force sensor: The resistance strain gauge is one of the main components of the piezoresistive strain sensor. The working principle of the metal resistance strain gauge is a phenomenon in which the strain resistance adsorbed on the base material changes with the mechanical deformation, which is commonly called the resistance strain effect.

   4. Ceramic pressure sensor: The ceramic pressure sensor is based on the piezoresistive effect. The pressure acts directly on the front surface of the ceramic diaphragm, causing the diaphragm to produce a slight deformation. The thick film resistor is printed on the back of the ceramic diaphragm and connected into a Wheatstone power supply. The bridge, due to the piezoresistive effect of the varistor, causes the bridge to generate a highly linear voltage signal proportional to the pressure, which is proportional to the excitation voltage. The standard signal is calibrated to 2.0/3.0/3.3mv depending on the pressure range. etc., it can be compatible with strain gauge sensors.

   5. Diffused silicon pressure sensor: The working principle of diffused silicon pressure sensor is also based on the piezoresistive effect. Using the principle of piezoresistive effect, the pressure of the measured medium directly acts on the diaphragm of the sensor (stainless steel or ceramic) to make the diaphragm and the medium. The micro-displacement proportional to the pressure changes the resistance value of the sensor, detects this change using an electronic circuit, and converts a standard measurement signal corresponding to this pressure.

   There are also pressure sensors for different packaging and process types, such as oil-filled core dielectric isolation, glass micro-fusion, and sputter film.

   Usually the output of the pressure sensor is a switch quantity, or NPN, PNP type, to facilitate the pressure transmitter 4~20mA, voltage output, or various signal protocol output.

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